Incremental encoders are motion transducers that have the competence to convert angular or linear movements into electrical information which in turn can be transformed into binary information. This information is worked and transformed into magnitudes that are understood, such as speed, position, distance, among others. The most commonly used encoders are optics, which have their operation based on a defrator that moves between a light source and a detector.
When the light passes through the areas that are transparent to the deflector, the detector produces a visual signal, the deflector and the mask produce a closing effect so that the light only passes through them when they are aligned. There is a third point (Z), which indicates the end of a lap and the beginning of the count. When turned off, these encoders need to pass through the zero mark to restart their count. Incremental encoders offer a simpler construction. Its operation is based on the generation of pulses (A and B) coming from two equally spaced radial markings that allow position detection by pulse counting and determine the direction of rotation by the offset of points (A and B).